The MCFONTZL classification system for soft-tissue injuries to the face

Richard H. Lee, Wm Bryan Gamble, Bradley Robertson, Paul N. Manson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


A review of the literature and case records reflected a need for the development of a clinically applicable assessment scheme and classification system for soft-tissue laceration injuries to the face. Herein, a systematic approach for assessing facial lacerations is proposed based on location, depth of penetration, branching, directionality, size, presence of soft- tissue defect, and translation of such injuries into the current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Moreover, a new classification system for facial laceration injuries is presented that may serve as the basis for simplification of current billing codes. Prospective clinical application of this classification system may lead to standardization of facial injury assessment and improvement in the incomplete and inconsistent patient record. This system will establish a reliable database that may identify factors in soft-tissue injuries that contribute to poor aesthetic results or secondary functional deformities. These data will lead to the modification of established treatment plans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1150-1157
Number of pages8
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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