The landscape of international living kidney donation in the United States

Fawaz Al Ammary, Alvin G. Thomas, Allan B. Massie, Abimereki D. Muzaale, Ashton A. Shaffer, Brittany Koons, Mohamud A. Qadi, Deidra C. Crews, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang, Hai Fang, Daniel C. Brennan, Krista L. Lentine, Dorry L. Segev, Macey L. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In the United States, kidney donation from international (noncitizen/nonresident) living kidney donors (LKDs) is permitted; however, given the heterogeneity of healthcare systems, concerns remain regarding the international LKD practice and recipient outcomes. We studied a US cohort of 102 315 LKD transplants from 2000-2016, including 2088 international LKDs, as reported to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. International LKDs were more tightly clustered among a small number of centers than domestic LKDs (Gini coefficient 0.76 vs 0.58, P <.001). Compared with domestic LKDs, international LKDs were more often young, male, Hispanic or Asian, and biologically related to their recipient (P <.001). Policy-compliant donor follow-up was substantially lower for international LKDs at 6, 12, and 24 months postnephrectomy (2015 cohort: 45%, 33%, 36% vs 76%, 71%, 70% for domestic LKDs, P <.001). Among international LKDs, Hispanic (aOR = 0.230.360.56, P <.001) and biologically related (aOR = 0.390.590.89, P <.01) donors were more compliant in donor follow-up than white and unrelated donors. Recipients of international living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) had similar graft failure (aHR = 0.780.891.02, P =.1) but lower mortality (aHR = 0.530.620.72, P <.001) compared with the recipients of domestic LDKT after adjusting for recipient, transplant, and donor factors. International LKDs may provide an alternative opportunity for living donation. However, efforts to improve international LKD follow-up and engagement are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2009-2019
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • clinical research/practice
  • donors and donation: donor follow-up
  • kidney transplantation/nephrology
  • kidney transplantation: living donor
  • registry/registry analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'The landscape of international living kidney donation in the United States'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this