The importance of heterogeneity to the epidemiology of tuberculosis

James M. Trauer, Peter J. Dodd, M. Gabriela M. Gomes, Gabriela B. Gomez, Rein M.G.J. Houben, Emma S. McBryde, Yayehirad A. Melsew, Nicolas A. Menzies, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Sourya Shrestha, David W. Dowdy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Although less well-recognized than for other infectious diseases, heterogeneity is a defining feature of tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology. To advance toward TB elimination, this heterogeneity must be better understood and addressed. Drivers of heterogeneity in TB epidemiology act at the level of the infectious host, organism, susceptible host, environment, and distal determinants. These effects may be amplified by social mixing patterns, while the variable latent period between infection and disease may mask heterogeneity in transmission. Reliance on notified cases may lead to misidentification of the most affected groups, as case detection is often poorest where prevalence is highest. Assuming that average rates apply across diverse groups and ignoring the effects of cohort selection may result in misunderstanding of the epidemic and the anticipated effects of control measures. Given this substantial heterogeneity, interventions targeting high-risk groups based on location, social determinants, or comorbidities could improve efficiency, but raise ethical and equity considerations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-166
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 18 2019


  • Case detection
  • Epidemiology
  • Heterogeneity
  • Interventions
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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