Background Multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection are a deadly combination. While evidence on the effects of HIV co-infection on MDR/RR-TB treatment outcomes is well-documented, little published evidence describes the effects of MDR/RR-TB treatment on HIV disease. Methods We conducted a review of literature published prior to June 2020. We searched Pubmed, CINAHL, and EMBASE using variations of the terms “multidrug-resistant tuberculosis,” “HIV,” and either “CD4” or “viral load.” Two reviewers independently completed title and abstract screening, full-text screening, article evaluation, and data extraction. We also included five published articles evaluated as evidence by the World Health Organization (WHO) in preparation for the 2019 MDR/RR-TB treatment guideline update. Results A total of 459 references were returned, with 362 remaining after duplicate removal. Following article screening, six manuscripts were included. Articles reported CD4 count and/or viral load results for MDR/RR-TB and HIV co-infected patients during and/or after MDR/RR-TB treatment. The additional five references identified from the WHO guideline revision did not report HIV disease indicators after MDR/RR-TB initiation. Conclusion There is a paucity of evidence on HIV disease indicators following MDR/RR-TB treatment. Researchers should report longitudinal HIV disease indicators in co-infected patients in publications.
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