The effects of HIV-1 infection on endocrine organs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Early in the HIV epidemic, multiple endocrine and metabolic abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected patients. These abnormalities were either related glandular infection or infiltration with opportunistic diseases or the effects of systemic inflammation and severe illness on hormonal function and metabolic homeostasis. This review describes the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dyslipidemia, disorders of bone homeostasis, and dysfunction of the adrenal, gonadal, and thyroid axes in the untreated HIV-infected patient. While this review is most applicable to the HIV epidemic in the developing world where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, understanding the effect of systemic inflammation on endocrine and metabolic function in the untreated HIV-infected person has valuable lessons for the pathogenesis of endocrine disease in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)403-413
Number of pages11
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2011


  • HIV
  • adrenal
  • bone
  • endocrinology
  • hypogonadism
  • inflammation
  • lipids
  • thyroid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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