The effect of the monomer-to-powder ratio on the material properties of acrylic bone cement

Stephen M. Belkoff, Janis C. Sanders, Louis E. Jasper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The procedure percutaneous vertebroplasty consists of injecting polymethylmethacrylate cement into vertebral bodies for the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures and tumors of the spine. Clinicians practicing vertebroplasty commonly alter the mixture of monomer-to-powder recommended by the manufacturer in an effort to decrease viscosity and increase the working time. The purpose of the current study was to measure the effect of varying the monomer-to-powder ratio on the compressive material properties (compressive modulus, yield stress, and ultimate compressive strength) of the cement Simplex P (Stryker-Howmedica-Osteonics, Rutherford, NJ). Cylindrical specimens were prepared using monomer-to-powder ratios of 0.45 to 1.00 mL/g and tested in compression. Peak compressive material properties occurred at the mixture ratio recommended by the manufacturer (0.5 mL/g) but decreased as the ratio of monomer to powder was increased. The material properties of specimens cured for 1 hour were significantly less than those for specimens cured for 24 hours. The monomer-to-powder ratio affects the compressive material properties of cement. The clinical significance of these results with respect to vertebroplasty is yet to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)396-399
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone cement
  • Material properties
  • Monomer-to-powder ratio
  • Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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