The effect of orientation on quantification of muscle creatine by 1H MR spectroscopy

Fabao Gao, Paul A. Bottomley, Cheryl Arnold, Robert G. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Creatine is a central energy metabolite whose N-CH3 group can be detected with 1H MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) with relatively high sensitivity. Prior studies suggest that muscle fiber orientation can influence the appearance of other resonances attributed to total creatine (CR). Our purpose was to determine whether muscle fiber orientation affects muscle CR concentration quantification by 1H MRS with the commonly used N-CH3 resonance at 3.0 ppm. Skeletal muscle CR was quantified with water-referenced 1H MRS in normal subjects with different forearm muscle orientations relative to the static magnetic field at 1.5T. There were no significant differences in mean total [CR] in two different series of experiments separately including two orthogonal orientations and four orientations (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°) of the forearm relative to the static field using either short (TE = 15 ms) or long (TE = 100 ms) echo times for voxels containing or centered on the same tissues. Subtle differences in CR line-width and T2 correction factors were observed with orientation. These observations are consistent with the primary hypothesis that careful water-referenced [CR] quantification, accounting for T2 effects and using the N-CH3 peak at 3.0ppm, is not affected by muscle orientation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-566
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2003


  • Concentration
  • H MRS
  • Orientation
  • Quantification
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Total creatine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of orientation on quantification of muscle creatine by 1H MR spectroscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this