We recently described that a dollabelane diterpene isolated from the marine algae Dictyota pfaffii (Dolabelladienetriol) inhibits the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT), and HIV-1 replication in primary cells. Based on these findings, we investigated additional antiretroviral properties of Dolabelladienetriol. Here, we describe that Dolabelladienetriol blocked the synthesis and integration of HIV-1 provirus and completely abrogated viral replication in primary cells. Also, studies of kinetic mode of action revealed that the Dolabelladienetriol is a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI), acting as a noncompetitive inhibitor, with a Ki value equal to 7.2 μM. To assess whether Dolabelladienetriol could potentiate the anti-HIV-1 effects of other HIV-1 inhibitors, HIV-1-infected cells were treated with Dolabelladienetriol at its EC50 dose plus sub-optimal concentrations of classical antiretrovirals. Dolabelladienetriol provided an additive effect with the nucleoside RT inhibitor AZT, and a synergistic effect with the protease inhibitor atazanavir sulphate. There was no increment of the anti-HIV-1 effect resulting from the combination between Dolabelladienetriol and the NNRTI nevirapine. Using a large panel of HIV-1 isolates harboring NNRTI resistance mutations, we found no cross-resistance between Dolabelladienetriol and clinical available NNRTIs. Thus, Dolabelladienetriol is an NNRTI, with potent activity against HIV-1 isolates carrying common NNRTI-associated resistance mutations. Dolabelladienetriol may be considered as a potential new agent for anti-HIV-1 therapy.
- Reverse transcriptase
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