The current state of therapeutic and T cell-based vaccines against human papillomaviruses

Andrew Yang, Emily Farmer, John Lin, T. C. Wu, Chien Fu Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be a necessary factor for many gynecologic malignancies and is also associated with a subset of head and neck malignancies. This knowledge has created the opportunity to control these HPV-associated cancers through vaccination. However, despite the availability of prophylactic HPV vaccines, HPV infections remain extremely common worldwide. In addition, while prophylactic HPV vaccines have been effective in preventing infection, they are ineffective at clearing pre-existing HPV infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for therapeutic and T cell-based vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Unlike prophylactic vaccines, which generate neutralizing antibodies, therapeutic, and T cell-based vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity against HPV antigens. Our review will cover various therapeutic and T cell-based vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, we review the strategies to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic and T cell-based HPV vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-165
Number of pages18
JournalVirus Research
StatePublished - Mar 2 2017


  • HPV E6
  • HPV E7
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Immunotherapy
  • T cell-based vaccine
  • Therapeutic vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Cancer Research


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