The Cost and Threshold Analysis of Retention in Care (RiC): A Multi-Site National HIV Care Program

Catherine Maulsby, Kriti M. Jain, Brian W. Weir, Blessing Enobun, Maura Riordan, Vignetta E. Charles, Intervention Team RiC Intervention Team, David R Holtgrave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Persons diagnosed with HIV but not retained in HIV medical care accounted for the majority of HIV transmissions in 2009 in the United States (US). There is an urgent need to implement and disseminate HIV retention in care programs; however little is known about the costs associated with implementing retention in care programs. We assessed the costs and cost-saving thresholds for seven Retention in Care (RiC) programs implemented in the US using standard methods recommended by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Data were gathered from accounting and program implementation records, entered into a standardized RiC economic analysis spreadsheet, and standardized to a 12 month time frame. Total program costs for from the societal perspective ranged from $47,919 to $423,913 per year or $146 to $2,752 per participant. Cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.13 HIV transmissions averted to 1.18 HIV transmission averted per year. We estimated that these cost-saving thresholds could be achieved through 1 to 16 additional person-years of viral suppression. Across a range of program models, retention in care interventions had highly achievable cost-saving thresholds, suggesting that retention in care programs are a judicious use of resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)643-649
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS and behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Cost analysis
  • Retention in HIV care
  • Threshold analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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