The classification of panic disorders: From Freud to DSM-IV

Allen Frances, Gloria M. Miele, Thomas A. Widiger, Harold A. Pincus, Donna Manning, Wendy W. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The authors trace the history of the classification of anxiety disorders, beginning with a detailed discussion of Freud's work on anxiety-neurosis as a basis for subsequent work. They discuss how anxiety disorders were described in DSM-I and DSM-II where Freud's concept of the anxiety neurosis was used as a major organizing principle. The revolutionary change in DSM-III is described in which the term and organizing principle of neurosis was dropped. The controversies that have arisen as a result of changes in DSM-III-R are discussed, particularly as they relate to compatibility with the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) and especially with respect to the relationship and priority of panic and agoraphobia. Finally the authors discuss the process by which decisions will be made in DSM-IV where changes will be based on systematic reviews of empirical evidence whenever possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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