The childhood health effects of an improved water supply system on a remote Panamanian island

R. W. Ryder, W. C. Reeves, N. Singh, C. B. Hall, A. Z. Kapikian, B. Gomez, R. B. Sack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and skin infections was prospectively determined after the introduction of a system which distributed unlimited quantities of high quality fresh water to each of the 150 housing units on Tupile, an island devoid of fresh water located off Panama's Caribbean coast and inhabited by 1,500 Cuna Indians. Tupile residents used 7.1 liters of water/person/day compared to the 2.3 usage rate of inhabitants on Achutupo, the control island. Despite ready availability of water in each household, Tupile residents continued to store water in contaminated vessels prior to use. Forty percent of stored water samples tested on Tupile and 45% on Achutupo were contaminated with E. coli organisms. There were 4.7 episodes/child year (E/Y) of acute diarrhea on Tupile compared with the 3.5 rate on Achutupo. The rotavirus infection rate on Tupile was 0.8 E/Y compared with 0.2 E/Y on Achutupo. Infection rates for Norwalk virus, respiratory syncytial virus and Coxsackie B 1-6 viruses were similar on both islands. Respiratory disease rates were high on both islands (2.2 E/Y on Tupile, 2.7 E/Y on Achutupo). Achutupo had much higher rates of impetigo and scabies (0.6 E/Y and 2.5 E/Y, respectively) than Tupile (0.2 E/Y and 1.4 E/Y). Provision of the water distribution system had a beneficial effect on the incidence of water-washed diseases (impetigo and scabies), but at best had no effect on diarrheal disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)921-924
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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