The association of plasma fluorescent oxidation products and chronic kidney disease: A case-control study

Casey M. Rebholz, Tianying Wu, L. Lee Hamm, Robin Arora, Islam E. Khan, Yanxi Liu, Chung Shiuan Chen, Katherine T. Mills, Stephanie Rogers, Myra A. Kleinpeter, Eric E. Simon, Jing Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background/Aims: Plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FLOP) constitute a stable and easily measured biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress. However, their association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been studied. Methods: We examined the association of FLOP and CKD in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls without CKD from the community. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of albuminuria. Results: Adjusted median (interquartile range) FLOP levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD than in controls [FLOP1 (lipid oxidation products): 215.2 (181.3-268.7) vs. 156.6 (139.6-177.3) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p < 0.0001; FLOP2 (DNA oxidation products): 534.8 (379.3-842.4) vs. 269.9 (232.4-410.5) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p < 0.0001; FLOP3 (protein and phospholipid oxidation products): 51.4 (44.4-66.0) vs. 45.2 (38.3-51.7) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p = 0.002]. Compared with those with a FLOP level below the 75th percentile, participants with a FLOP level above the 75th percentile had increased odds of CKD after adjustment for covariables (FLOP1: odds ratio 13.1, 95% confidence interval 6.2-27.6; FLOP2: odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9-11.1; FLOP3: odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.7). Levels of FLOP1, FLOP2 and FLOP3 were related to eGFR (p < 0.0001 for all) and log-transformed urine albumin (p < 0.005 for all) in multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. Conclusion: These data indicate that an elevated FLOP level is associated with CKD status and severity. Future studies are warranted to elucidate its role in the development and progression of CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-304
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Albuminuria
  • Biological markers
  • Case-control study
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Kidney diseases
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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