OBJECTIVE We sought to examine associations in older adults among diabetes, glycemic control, diabetes duration, and biomarkers of hyperglycemia with incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and incident dementia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Weconducted a prospective analysis of 5,099 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended the fifth (2011-2013) exam. Cognitive status was assessed during follow-up via telephone calls, death certificate codes, surveillance, and a follow-up examination (2016-2017).Wedefined incident cognitive impairment as incident MCI or incident dementia in persons dementiafree at the index examination;wealsoexamined eachoutcomeseparately. Diabetes was defined using self-report, medications, or HbA1c ≥6.5%; poor glycemic control in persons with diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥7%. We examined the following biomarkers of hyperglycemia: HbA1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. RESULTS Mean age at baseline was 76 years, 59% were female, and 21% were black. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14 [95% CI 1.00, 1.31]), poor glycemic control in persons with diabetes (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.05, 1.63]), and longer diabetes duration (≥5 vs. <5 years; HR 1.59 [95% CI 1.23, 2.07]) were significantly associated with incident cognitive impairment. We found a J-shaped association between HbA1c and incident dementia. Glycated albumin and fructosamine were also associated with incident dementia, independently of HbA1c. HbA1c and fructosamine were also associated with incident MCI. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes status, poor glycemic control, and longer diabetes duration were associated with worse cognitive outcomes over a median follow-up of 5 years.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing