Background: Kidney transplant (KT) recipients experience high rates of early (≤30 days) hospital readmission (EHR) after KT, and existing studies provide limited data on modifiable discharge factors that may mitigate EHR risk. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 468 adult deceased donor KT recipients transplanted between 4/2010 and 11/2013 at 5 United States transplant centers. We fit multivariable mixed effects models to assess the association of two potentially modifiable discharge factors with the probability of EHR after KT: (i) weekend discharge and (ii) days to first scheduled follow-up. Results: Among 468 KT recipients, 38% (n = 178) experienced EHR after KT. In fully adjusted analyses, compared to weekday discharges, KT recipients discharged on the weekend had a 29% lower risk of EHR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.94). Compared to follow-up within 2 days of discharge, KT recipients with follow-up within 3 to 6 days had a 28% higher probability of EHR (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.45). Conclusions: These findings suggest that clinical decisions related to the timing of discharge and follow-up modify EHR risk after KT, independent of traditional risk factors.
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