Tendon and Ligament Healing and Current Approaches to Tendon and Ligament Regeneration

Natalie L. Leong, Jamie L. Kator, Thomas L. Clemens, Aaron James, Motomi Enamoto-Iwamoto, Jie Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Ligament and tendon injuries are common problems in orthopedics. There is a need for treatments that can expedite nonoperative healing or improve the efficacy of surgical repair or reconstruction of ligaments and tendons. Successful biologically-based attempts at repair and reconstruction would require a thorough understanding of normal tendon and ligament healing. The inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases, and the cells involved in tendon and ligament healing will be reviewed. Then, current research efforts focusing on biologically-based treatments of ligament and tendon injuries will be summarized, with a focus on stem cells endogenous to tendons and ligaments. Statement of clinical significance: This paper details mechanisms of ligament and tendon healing, as well as attempts to apply stem cells to ligament and tendon healing. Understanding of these topics could lead to more efficacious therapies to treat ligament and tendon injuries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-12
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • growth factors
  • ligament healing
  • pericytes
  • stem cells
  • tendon healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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