Temporal trends in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk among U.S. adults. Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2018

Muchi Ditah Chobufo, Atul Singla, Ebad Ur Rahman, Erin D. Michos, Paul K. Whelton, Sudarshan Balla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are a significant cause of disability and mortality. Study of trends in cardiovascular risk at a population level helps understand the overall cardiovascular health and the impact of primary prevention efforts. Aims To assess trends in the estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among U.S. adults from 1999–2000 to 2017–18 with no established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Serial cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2000 to results 2017–18 (10 cycles), including 24 022 US adults aged 40–79 years with no reported ASCVD. ASCVD risk was assessed using the pooled cohort equations (PCEs). There was a significant temporal decline in the mean 10-year ASCVD risk from 13.5% (95% CI, 12.5–14.4) in 1999–2000 to 11.1% (10.5–11.7) in 2011–12 (Ptrend < 0.001) and to 12.0% (11.3–12.7) in 2017–2018 (overall Ptrend = 0.001), with the mean ASCVD risk score remaining stable from 2013–14 through 2017–2018 (Ptrend = 0.056). A declining trend in ASCVD risk was noted in females, non-Hispanic Blacks and those with income <3 times the poverty threshold with Ptrend of <0.001, 0.002, and 0.007, respectively. Mean total cholesterol and prevalence of smokers showed a downward trend (Ptrend <0.001 for both), whereas type 2 diabetes and mean BMI showed an upward trend (Ptrend < 0.001 for both). Conclusions The 20-year trend of ASCVD risk among NHANES participants 40–79 years, as assessed by the use of PCE, showed a non-linear downward trend from 1999–2000 to 2017–18. The initial and significant decline in estimated ASCVD risk from 1999–2000 to 2011–12 subsequently stabilized, with no significant change from 2013–14 to 2017–18. Mean BMI and prevalence of diabetes mellitus increased while mean serum cholesterol levels and prevalence of smoking declined during the study period. Our findings support invigoration of efforts aimed at prevention of CVD, including primordial prevention of CVD risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2289-2300
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Volume29
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Epidemiology

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