Temporal lobe and "default" hemodynamic brain modes discriminate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

Vince D. Calhoun, Paul K. Maciejewski, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Kent A. Kiehl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

255 Scopus citations


Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are currently diagnosed on the basis of psychiatric symptoms and longitudinal course. The determination of a reliable, biologically-based diagnostic indicator of these diseases (a biomarker) could provide the groundwork for developing more rigorous tools for differential diagnosis and treatment assignment. Recently, methods have been used to identify distinct sets of brain regions or "spatial modes" exhibiting temporally coherent brain activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and a multivariate analysis method, independent component analysis, we combined the temporal lobe and the default modes to discriminate subjects with bipolar disorder, chronic schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Temporal lobe and default mode networks were reliably identified in all participants. Classification results on an independent set of individuals revealed an average sensitivity and specificity of 90 and 95%, respectively. The use of coherent brain networks such as the temporal lobe and default mode networks may provide a more reliable measure of disease state than task-correlated fMRI activity. A combination of two such hemodynamic brain networks shows promise as a biomarker for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1265-1275
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Bipolar
  • Independent component analysis
  • Schizophrenia
  • fMRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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