Targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy during active surveillance: Effect on hospitalization

Carling Cheung, Hiten D. Patel, Patricia Landis, H Ballentine Carter, Misop Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives: We investigated the effect of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis using rectal swab cultures on hospitalization for infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). Materials and methods: A cohort of men (1995-2016) with prostate cancer on active surveillance receiving annual TRUSP biopsies was surveyed to determine the incidence of hospitalization for suspected postbiopsy sepsis. We compared biopsy events (i.e., unique biopsies) in the era of empiric prophylaxis to those in the era of targeted prophylaxis based on culture. The effect of fluoroquinolone resistant organisms (FQ-R), and other demographic and clinical factors, on hospitalization was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Of 1,167 men on active surveillance, 825 responded for a total of 3,361 biopsy events; 7 (0.79%) of 886 biopsies preceded by rectal swab culture resulted in hospitalization compared to 24 (0.97%) of 2,475 biopsies without culture (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.35-1.89, P = 0.63). Among 886 cultures performed, FQ-R organisms were identified in 194 (21.9%); 6 out of 194 (3.1%) biopsies with swabs positive for FQ-R resulted in admission compared to 1 out of 692 (0.14%) biopsies with fluoroquinolone sensitive swabs (OR = 22.1, 95% CI: 2.6-184.3, P<0.01). Smaller prostate volume at diagnosis was significantly associated with hospitalization (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.04-6.31) for<45 g vs. ≥45 g, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Targeted antibiotic prophylaxis is not associated with a significant reduction in hospitalization for suspected post-TRUSP biopsy sepsis. FQ-R and prostate volume exhibited strong associations with risk of hospitalization and could be included in a risk-adapted approach to prophylaxis, but better prophylactic strategies are needed for patients identified to be at high risk of subsequent hospitalization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017


  • Biopsy
  • Infection
  • Prophylaxis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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