Systems cancer medicine: Towards realization of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine

Q. Tian, N. D. Price, L. Hood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

137 Scopus citations


A grand challenge impeding optimal treatment outcomes for patients with cancer arises from the complex nature of the disease: the cellular heterogeneity, the myriad of dysfunctional molecular and genetic networks as results of genetic (somatic) and environmental perturbations. Systems biology, with its holistic approach to understanding fundamental principles in biology, and the empowering technologies in genomics, proteomics, single-cell analysis, microfluidics and computational strategies, enables a comprehensive approach to medicine, which strives to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases, identify disease biomarkers and begin thinking about new strategies for drug target discovery. The integration of multidimensional high-throughput 'omics' measurements from tumour tissues and corresponding blood specimens, together with new systems strategies for diagnostics, enables the identification of cancer biomarkers that will enable presymptomatic diagnosis, stratification of disease, assessment of disease progression, evaluation of patient response to therapy and the identification of reoccurrences. Whilst some aspects of systems medicine are being adopted in clinical oncology practice through companion molecular diagnostics for personalized therapy, the mounting influx of global quantitative data from both wellness and diseases is shaping up a transformational paradigm in medicine we termed 'predictive', 'preventive', 'personalized', and 'participatory' (P4) medicine, which requires new strategies, both scientific and organizational, to enable bringing this revolution in medicine to patients and to the healthcare system. P4 medicine will have a profound impact on society - transforming the healthcare system, turning around the ever escalating costs of healthcare, digitizing the practice of medicine and creating enormous economic opportunities for those organizations and nations that embrace this revolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-121
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Internal Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood biomarkers
  • Cancer complexity
  • Molecular diagnostics
  • P4 medicine
  • Quantized cell populations
  • Systems medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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