Systematic literature review of the take-home route of pesticide exposure via biomonitoring and environmental monitoring

Nicolas López-Gálvez, Rietta Wagoner, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Yoshira Ornelas Van Horne, Melissa Furlong, El’gin Avila, Paloma Beamer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Exposure to pesticides via take-home can be an important pathway for farmworkers' families. Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize and analyze the literature published during the last decade of exposure to pesticides via take-home pathway in farmworkers' families. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles of interest; only articles related to take-home pathway that included some sort of pesticide monitoring were considered for inclusion. Systematic reviews, literature reviews, and meta-analyses were excluded, resulting in a total of 39 articles elected for analysis. The articles were summarized based on the location of the study, population (sample size), pesticide analyzed, and type of sample. Results: The majority of the reviewed studies were conducted in the U.S., but there seems to be an increase in literature on pesticide take-home pathway in developing countries. Most of the articles provided evidence that farmworkers’ families are exposed to pesticides at higher levels than non-farmworkers’ families. The levels may depend on several factors such as seasonality, parental occupation, cohabitation with a farmworker, behavior at work/home, age, and gender. Community-based interventions disrupting the take-home pathway seem to be effective at reducing pesticide exposure. Discussion/Conclusion: The take-home pathway is an important contributor to overall residential exposures, but other pathways such as pesticide drift, indoor-residential applications, and dietary intake need to be considered. A more comprehensive exposure assessment approach is necessary to better understand exposures to pesticides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2177
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 2 2019


  • Agricultural
  • Biomarkers
  • Farmworkers
  • Para-occupational
  • Pesticide exposure
  • Residues
  • Rural
  • Take-home pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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