Synovial fluid calprotectin in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection: A meta-analysis

Ashraf T. Hantouly, Motasem Salameh, Ahmad A. Toubasi, Loay A. Salman, Osama Alzobi, Abdulaziz F. Ahmed, Shamsi Hameed, Bashir Zikria, Ghalib Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most debilitating complications following joint replacement surgery. Synovial biomarkers, such as Calprotectin, have become valuable in the diagnosis of PJI. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of synovial Calprotectin as a diagnostic test in PJI. Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted with adherence to PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched until February 2022. Inclusion criteria were as follows: all studies in which the patients with joint replacements were evaluated for PJI; synovial Calprotectin was the biomarker of choice to diagnose PJI; standardized guidelines were used as the gold standard for the diagnosis; and a comparison between the guidelines and Calprotectin results was made. Diagnostic parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for the included studies to evaluate synovial Calprotectin for PJI diagnosis. Results: The total number of the included patients was 618 from eight studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of Calprotectin test were 92% (95%CI: 84%-98%), 93% (95%CI: 84%-99%), and 187.61 (95%CI: 20.21–1741.18), respectively. The results showed that the negative and positive likelihood ratios of the Calprotectin test were 0.07 (95%CI: 0.02–0.22) and 9.91 (95%CI: 4.11–23.93), respectively. The SROC showed that the area under the curve for Calprotectin test was 0.935. Conclusion: Synovial Calprotectin is a valuable biomarker as it provides a reliable and rapid diagnosis of PJI. It has the potential to be used in clinical practice due to its high sensitivity and specificity that are comparable to the other utilized biomarkers. Another advantage is its low cost relative to other biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-981
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Orthopaedics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Arthroplasty
  • Calprotectin
  • Diagnosis
  • Periprosthetic joint infection
  • Synovial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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