Synchrotron-based pencil beam scanning nozzle with an integrated mini-ridge filter: A dosimetric study to optimize treatment delivery

Xianliang Wang, Yupeng Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Heng Li, Koichi Miyazaki, Rintaro Fujimoto, Hiroshi Akiyama, Michael T. Gillin, Falk Poenisch, Narayan Sahoo, David Grosshans, Brandon Gunn, Steven Jay Frank, Pei Wang, Jinyi Lang, Qing Hou, Xiaorong Ronald Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A mini-ridge filter is often used to widen the Bragg peak in the longitudinal direction at low energies but not high energies. To facilitate the clinical use of a mini-ridge filter, we performed a planning study for the feasibility of a mini-ridge filter as an integral part of the synchrotron nozzle (IMRF). Dose models with and without IMRF were commissioned in a commercial Treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric characteristics in a homogenous water phantom were compared between plans with and without IMRF for a fixed spread-out Bragg peak width of 4 cm with distal ranges varying from 8 to 30 g/cm2. Six clinical cases were then used to compare the plan quality between plans. The delivery efficiency was also compared between plans in both the phantom and the clinical cases. The Bragg peak width was increased by 0.18 cm at the lowest energy and by only about 0.04 cm at the highest energy. The IMRF increased the spot size (σ) by up to 0.1 cm at the lowest energy and by only 0.02 cm at the highest energy. For the phantom, the IMRF negligibly affected dose at high energies but increased the lateral penumbra by up to 0.12 cm and the distal penumbra by up to 0.06 cm at low energies. For the clinical cases, the IMRF slightly increased dose to the organs at risk. However, the beam delivery time was reduced from 18.5% to 47.1% for the lung, brain, scalp, and head and neck cases, and dose uniformities of target were improved up to 2.9% for these cases owing to the reduced minimum monitor unit effect. In conclusion, integrating a mini-ridge filter into a synchrotron nozzle is feasible for improving treatment efficiency without significantly sacrificing the plan quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number170
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 13 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Pencil beam scanning
  • Proton therapy
  • Ridge filter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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