Symptoms characteristic of heart failure among CKD patients without diagnosed heart failure

Michael G. Shlipak, James P. Lash, Wei Yang, Valerie Teal, Martin Keane, Tom Cappola, Chris Keller, Kenneth Jamerson, John Kusek, Patrice Delafontaine, Jiang He, Edgar R. Miller, Martin Schreiber, Alan S. Go

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Epidemiological studies typically diagnose heart failure (HF) at the time of hospitalization, and have not evaluated the prevalence of HF symptoms in CKD patients without a prior HF diagnosis. Methods and Results: We modified the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) to detect and quantify symptoms characteristic of HF (dyspnea, edema, and fatigue) among 2883 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients without diagnosed heart failure in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC). The KCCQ is a 23-item instrument that quantifies the impact of dyspnea, fatigue, and edema on physical, social, and emotional functions (scored 0 to 100). The median KCCQ score was 92, and 25% had KCCQ scores <75. Compared with cystatin Cbased estimated glomerular filtration rate >50 mL·min·1.73m2 (reference), estimated glomerular filtration rate 40 to 50, 30 to 40, and <30 were independently associated with lower KCCQ scores (<75); adjusted odds ratios and (95% CI): 1.38 (1.06-1.78), 1.39 (1.09-1.82), and 2.15 (1.54-3.00), respectively. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels also had independent associations with KCCQ <75: Hb >14 g/dL (reference), Hb 13 to 14 g/dL (1.03; 0.76-1.40), Hb 12 to 13 g/dL (1.41; 1.04-1.91), Hb 11 to 12 g/dL (1.56; 1.12-2.16); and Hb <1 g/dL (1.65; 1.15-2.37). Conclusion: CKD patients without diagnosed HF have a substantial burden of symptoms characteristic of HF, particularly among those with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of cardiac failure
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Hemoglobin
  • glomerular filtration rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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