Sustained use of liquefied petroleum gas following one year of free fuel and behavioral support in Puno, Peru

Cardiopulmonary outcomes and Household Air Pollution trial investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Existing efforts to promote cleaner fuels have not achieved exclusive use. We investigated whether receiving 12 months of free liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and behavioral support could motivate continued purchase and use. Methods: The Cardiopulmonary outcomes and Household Air Pollution (CHAP) trial enrolled 180 women. Half were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which included free LPG delivered in months 1–12 followed by a post-intervention period in which they no longer received free fuel (months 13–24). For the purposes of comparison, we also include months 1–12 of data from control participants. We tracked stove use with temperature monitors, surveys, and observations, and conducted in-depth interviews with 19 participants from the intervention group at the end of their post-intervention period. Results: Participants from the intervention group used their LPG stove for 85.4 % of monitored days and 63.2 % of cooking minutes during the post-intervention months (13–24) when they were not receiving free fuel from the trial. They used a traditional stove (fogón) on 45.1 % of days post-intervention, which is significantly lower than fogón use by control participants during the intervention period (72.2 % of days). In months 13–24 post-intervention, participants from the intervention group purchased on average 12.3 kg and spent 34.1 soles (10.3 USD) per month on LPG. Continued LPG use was higher among participants who said they could afford two tanks of LPG per month, did not cook for animals, and removed their traditional stove. Women described that becoming accustomed to LPG, support and training from the project, consistent LPG supply, choice between LPG providers, and access to delivery services facilitated sustained LPG use. However, high cost was a major barrier to exclusive use. Conclusion: A 12-month period of intensive LPG support achieved a high level of sustained LPG use post-intervention, but other strategies are needed to sustain exclusive use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy for Sustainable Development
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Clean cooking
  • Household air pollution
  • Household energy
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
  • Mixed methods research
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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