Surgical repair of the congenitally malformed mitral valve in infants and children

E. A. Zias, C. Mavroudis, C. L. Backer, L. M. Kohr, N. L. Gotteiner, A. P. Rocchini

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45 Scopus citations


Background: Mitral valve remodeling techniques were applied to 26 infants and children (mean age, 6.0 years, range, 0.4 to 15.9 years) with various forms of congenital mitral valve disease over a 7-year period. Patients with atrioventricular canal, L-transposition and single ventricle were excluded. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was utilized to assess the repair and guide the need for immediate intervention. Methods. Twenty-one patients had mitral regurgitation: 10 with cleft anterior mitral leaflet, 7 with annular dilatation, 1 with normal leaflets with an obstructing cord, 2 with prolapsed leaflets and elongated cords, and 1 with restricted leaflet motion, normal papillary muscles, and shortened cords. Of the 5 mitral stenosis patients, 3 had supravalvular mitral ring, 1 had midvalvular mitral ring, and 1 had a parachute valve. Three of the mitral stenosis patients had additional stenotic lesions. Concurrent repair of associated lesions was performed in 21 patients (78%). Results. Operative mortality was 3.8% (n = 1). There were no late deaths. Immediate rerepair in 4 patients resulted in improved function. All mitral stenosis patients improved. A total of 20 mitral regurgitation patients (95%) improved; 1 required mitral valve replacement. Mean follow-up is 31 months (range, 2 to 81 months). All patients are in New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Conclusions. Mitral valve repair can be successfully performed in infants and children with excellent short- and midterm results. Assessment using transesophageal echocardiography can guide the necessity for immediate rerepair to achieve improved function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1551-1559
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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