Surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of urine from deceased donors as a prognostic tool for kidney transplant outcome

Jingmao Chi, Yiwei Ma, Francis L. Weng, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Chirag R. Parikh, Henry Du

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We report the utility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of urine from deceased donors for prognosis of kidney transplant outcomes. Iodide-modified silver nanoparticles were used as the enabler for sensitive measurements of urine proteins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed for the statistical analysis of the SERS data. Thirty urine samples in three classes were analysed. The ATN class consists of donors whose kidneys had acute tubular necrosis (ATN), the most common type of acute kidney injury (AKI) with high risk of poor graft performance in recipients, yet yielded acceptable transplant outcome. The DGF class is comprised of donors whose kidney had delayed graft function (DGF) in recipients. The control class includes donors whose kidneys did not have donor ATN or recipient DGF. We show a sensitivity of more than 90 % in differentiating the ATN class from the DGF and control classes. Our methodology can thus help clinicians choose kidneys in the high-risk ATN category for transplant which would otherwise be discarded. Our research is impactful in that it could serve as a valuable guidance to expand the deceased donor pool to include those perceived as high-risk AKI type based on common urinary biomarkers. Picutre: Scheme of SERS analysis of urine samples from deceased donors for kidney transplant outcome indication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1743-1755
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of biophotonics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • SERS
  • acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
  • deceased donor
  • delayed graft function (DGF)
  • kidney transplant
  • optical diagnosis
  • principal component analysis (PCA)
  • urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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