Suppression of lipid artifacts in amide proton transfer imaging

Phillip Zhe Sun, Jinyuan Zhou, Weiyun Sun, Judy Huang, Peter C.M. Van Zijl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a type of chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging in which the amide protons of cellular proteins and peptides are saturated and detected via the water resonance. To study this effect, conventional magnetization transfer and direct saturation effects in the frequency-dependent water saturation spectrum (z-spectrum) need to be removed by asymmetry analysis with respect to the water frequency offset. When using echo planar imaging, it was found that unequal pericranial fat saturation at equidistant higher and lower frequencies with respect to water leads to a lipid artifact in APT asymmetry images. It is demonstrated that a chemical-shift- selective refocusing pulse in combination with crusher gradients can suppress this artifact and provide high-quality images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-225
Number of pages4
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • APT
  • Amide proton
  • CEST
  • Magnetization transfer
  • Mobile protein
  • Proton exchange
  • Stroke
  • pH imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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