Supine magnetic resonance defecography for evaluation of anterior compartment prolapse: Comparison with upright voiding cystourethrogram

Neil Kumar, Gaurav Khatri, Alana L. Christie, Robert Sims, Ivan Pedrosa, Philippe E. Zimmern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare utility of supine Magnetic Resonance Defecography (MRD) with upright Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) for evaluation of cystocele and urethral hypermobility (UHM). Methods: This was an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study of 51 consecutive patients with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and lower urinary tract symptoms who underwent both upright VCUG and supine MRD. Cystocele height was defined in centimeters with reference to the inferior edge of the pubic bone on VCUG and the pubococcygeal line on MRD. Urethral angle at rest (UAR) and during straining (UAS) was measured in degrees between the urethral axis and a vertical line at the external meatus. Pairedt-test and simple linear regression were applied to compare VCUG and MRD data sets. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean cystocele extent was 1.58 cm lower (more inferior to the reference point) (95% CI for the mean difference: 1.21, 1.94;p < 0.0001) on MRD (-2.73 ± 1.99 cm) than on VCUG (-1.16 ± 1.75 cm). Mean UAS on MRD (72.29 ± 26.45) was 31.8 degrees higher compared to that on VCUG (40.45 ± 21.41), (95% CI for mean difference in UAS: 37.57, 26.11; p < 0.0001). Mean UAS-UAR on MRD (74.30 ± 28.50) was 58.6 degrees higher compared to that on VCUG (15.70 ± 11.27) (95% CI for mean difference in UAS-UAR 65.94, 51.26; p < 0.0001). Cystocele size was upgraded in 22 (43.3%) patients on MRD compared to VCUG. Five (9.8%) patients demonstrated UHM on VCUG; 48 (94.1%) patients demonstrated UHM on MRD. The differences between VCUG and MRD scores persisted across the range of VCUG measurements. Cystocele size was significantly larger in POP (+) patients than in POP (-) patients on MRD (p = 0.005) but not on VCUG (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Supine MRD demonstrates significantly higher prevalence and degree of cystocele and UHM than upright VCUG, and alters the grade of bladder prolapse in a significant portion of the patient population. Cystocele size on MRD correlates with clinical presence of prolapse symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-101
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Radiology
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Cystocele
  • Magnetic resonance defecography
  • Pelvic organ prolapse
  • Supine MRI
  • Urethral hypermobility
  • Voiding cystourethrogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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