Subsurface optical stimulation of rat prostate cavernous nerves using a continuous wave, single mode, 1490 nm diode laser

Serhat Tozburun, Charlotte S.D. Stahl, Thomas C. Hutchens, Gwen A. Lagoda, Arthur L. Burnett, Nathaniel M. Fried

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Successful identification of the cavernous nerves (CN's) during radical prostatectomy requires detection of the CN's through a thin layer of overlying fascia. This study explores the 1490 nm infrared (IR) diode laser wavelength for rapid and deep subsurface CN stimulation in a rat model, in vivo. A 150-mW, 1490-nm diode laser providing an optical penetration depth of ∼ 520 μm was used to stimulate the CN's in 8 rats through a single mode fiber optic probe with 1-mm-diameter spot and 15 s irradiation time. Successful ONS was judged by an intracavernous pressure response (ICP) in the rat penis. Subsurface ONS at 1490 nm was also compared with previous studies using 1455 and 1550 nm IR diode laser wavelengths. ONS was observed through fascia layers up to 380 μm thick using an incident laser power of ∼ 50 mW. ICP response times as short as 4.6 ± 0.2 s were recorded using higher laser powers bust still below the nerve damage threshold. The 1490-nm diode laser represents a compact, low cost, high power, and high quality infrared light source for use in ONS. This wavelength provides deeper optical penetration than 1455 nm and more rapid and efficient nerve stimulation than 1550 nm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IX
StatePublished - May 30 2013
EventPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IX - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 2 2013Feb 7 2013

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IX
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Cavernous nerves
  • Infrared
  • Neurovascular bundle
  • Optical nerve stimulation
  • Prostate
  • Subsurface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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