Study design, baseline patient characteristics and intervention in a cross-cultural framework: Results from the ADORE study

Ulrich Preuss, Stephen J. Ralston, Gisli Baldursson, Bruno Falissard, Maria J. Lorenzo, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Laurens Vlasveld, David Coghill, P. Curatolo, S. Dalsgaard, M. Döpfner, A. Hervas, M. F. Le Heuzey, T. S. Nøvik, P. Rasmussen, A. W. Riley, A. Rothenberger, G. Spiel, H. C. Steinhausen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Objective: To describe the methodology and to present the baseline findings of the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, the primary objective of which is to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and quality of life of children with ADHD in actual practice. Methods: In this 2-year prospective observational study, data on diagnosis, prescribed treatment and outcomes of ADHD were collected at seven time points by paediatricians and child psychiatrists on 1,573 children recruited in 10 European countries. The data presented here from the 1,478 patients included in the analyses describe the baseline condition, initial treatment regimen prescribed and quality of life of families with children with ADHD. Results: Patients had a mean age of 9.0 years (SD 2.5) and 84% were male. Physicians diagnoses were made using DSM-IV (43 %), ICD-10 (32%) and both DSM-IV and ICD-10 (12 %). Mean age of awareness of a problem was 5.1 years, suggesting an average delay of approximately 4 years between awareness and diagnosis of ADHD. Baseline ADHD rating scale scores (physicianrated) indicated moderate to severe ADHD. Parent-rated SDQ scores were in agreement and suggested significant levels of co-existing problems. CGI-S, CGAS and CHIPCE scores also indicated significant impairment. Patients were offered the following treatments after the initial assessment: pharmacotherapy (25 %), psychotherapy (19 %), combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (25 %), other therapy (10 %) and no treatment (21 %). Conclusion: The ADORE study shows that ADHD is similarly recognised across 10 European countries and that the children are significantly impaired across a wide range of domains. In this respect, they resemble children described in previous ADHD samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)I/4-I/14
JournalEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • ADHD
  • Children
  • Europe
  • Quality of life
  • Symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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