Structural barriers for retention of HIV/AIDS patients after initiating antiretroviral therapy in outpatient clinics of Vietnam

Nhien Thi Hoang, Tiara J. Foo, Bach Xuan Tran, Nhan Thi Do, Giang Thu Vu, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Hai Quang Pham, Carl A. Latkin, Cyrus S.H. Ho, Roger C.M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Little evidence is available about structural factors associated with the retention in care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in Vietnam. This retrospective longitudinal study was conducted among PLWH initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 62 ART clinics from 15 provinces, to estimate retention rates and identify specific related structural factors. Facility-related factors such as location, duration of HIV service implantation, level of healthcare facility, frequency of drugs dispensed, integration of HIV care were examined. Cox proportional hazard model was employed to estimate the retention rate and association between facility-level factors and loss-to-follow up (LTFU). Among 20,119 patients, the retention rates after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months were 96.5% (95% CI = 96.2%-96.7%), 93.6% (95% CI = 93.2%-93.9%), 90.2% (95% CI = 89.8%-90.6%), 87.9% (95% CI = 87.4%-88.4%) and 86.0% (95% CI = 85.4%-86.5%), respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased risk of LTFU included duration of HIV service implementation, frequency of drug dispensed per month, integration of HIV care and of treatment procedures into general care, clinics at central or provincial level and in the Middle region of Vietnam. Such association should be addressed in future care planning and HIV/AIDS management to ensure greater coverage of therapy in Vietnam.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)992-999
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2022


  • ART
  • Facility
  • HIV
  • Vietnam
  • retention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Social Psychology


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