Stimulated-Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) MRI for black-blood delayed hyperenhanced myocardial imaging

El Sayed H. Ibrahim, Robert G. Weiss, Matthias Stuber, Dara L. Kraitchman, Li Pan, Amy E. Spooner, Nael F. Osman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop a breathhold method for black-blood viability imaging of the heart that may facilitate identifying the endocardial border. Materials and Methods: Three stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) images were obtained almost simultaneously during the same acquisition using three different demodulation values. Two of the three images were used to construct a black-blood image of the heart. The third image was a T1-weighted viability image that enabled detection of hyperintense infarcted myocardium after contrast agent administration. The three STEAM images were combined into one composite black-blood viability image of the heart. The composite STEAM images were compared to conventional inversion-recovery (IR) delayed hyperenhanced (DHE) images in nine human subjects studied on a 3T MRI scanner. Results: STEAM images showed black-blood characteristics and a significant improvement in the blood-infarct signal-difference to noise ratio (SDNR) when compared to the IR-DHE images (34 ± 4.1 vs. 10 ± 2.9, mean ± standard deviation (SD), P < 0.002). There was sufficient myocardium-infarct SDNR in the STEAM images to accurately delineate infarcted regions. The extracted infarcts demonstrated good agreement with the IR-DHE images. Conclusion: The STEAM black-blood property allows for better delineation of the blood-infarct border, which would enhance the fast and accurate measurement of infarct size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-238
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008


  • Black-blood
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Delayed hyperenhancement
  • Viability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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