Stepwise simulation course design model: Survey results from 16 centers

Nehal Khamis, Richard Satava, David E. Kern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background and Objectives: In 2016 we published a stepwise evidence-based model (subsequently named SimSteps) for curriculum development (CD) of simulation-based courses. The current study aimed to assess the uses, user friendliness, and perceived effectiveness of this model and its worksheet and to obtain suggestions for improvement. Methods: We sent e-mail invitations for a 14-question web-based survey to 13 health professionals who requested the supplemental worksheet of the stepwise model and 11 authors who cited the model’s publication in 14 articles. The survey included quantitative and qualitative items. Results: Sixteen (67%) from seven countries and six professions responded. Ten (63%) used the model: six for both course and faculty development, three for course development only, and one for faculty development only. Both users and nonusers found the model and worksheet applicable and user friendly and agreed that they guided use of a systematic, comprehensive approach to CD. 94% (15 of 16) agreed that they helped CDers integrate edu cational effectiveness criteria, develop more objective learners’ assessment tools, and enhance validity for their courses. Sixty-nine percent (11 of 16) agreed that model and its worksheet helped CDers include nontechnical skills in courses. The highest reported role in enhancing program evaluation results was in the gain of knowledge (five of eight, 63%) and least was clinical outcomes (two of eight, 25%). All respondents would recommend the model and worksheet to a colleague. Conclusion: Respondents find the stepwise model and its worksheet user friendly and helpful in developing simulation curricula of high educational standards. Future studies should include larger sample size, objective measures of impact, and longer-term follow-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2019.00060
JournalJournal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020


  • Assessment
  • Curriculum development
  • Model
  • Simulation
  • Six step

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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