Steady-Hand Eye Robot 3.0: Optimization and Benchtop Evaluation for Subretinal Injection

Alireza Alamdar, David E. Usevitch, Jiahao Wu, Russell H. Taylor, Peter Gehlbach, Iulian Iordachita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Subretinal injection methods and other procedures for treating retinal conditions and diseases (many considered incurable) have been limited in scope due to limited human motor control. This study demonstrates the next generation, cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot (SHER 3.0), a precise and intuitive-to-use robotic platform achieving clinical standards for targeting accuracy and resolution for subretinal injections. The system design and basic kinematics are reported and a deflection model for the incorporated delta stage and validation experiments are presented. This model optimizes the delta stage parameters, maximizing the global conditioning index and minimizing torsional compliance. Five tests measuring accuracy, repeatability, and deflection show the optimized stage design achieves a tip accuracy of < 30 μ m , tip repeatability of 9.3μ m and 0.02°, and deflections between 20-350 μ m/N. Future work will use updated control models to refine tip positioning outcomes and will be tested on in vivo animal models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-145
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • Surgical robotics
  • ophthalmology
  • optimization
  • subretinal injection
  • system design and analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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