Of the various techniques employed to quantify temperature changes by MR, proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift-based phase-difference imaging (PDI) is the most accurate and widely used. However, PDI is associated with various artifacts. Motivated by these limitations, we developed a new method to monitor temperature changes by MRI using the balanced steady-state free precession (balanced-SSFP) pulse sequence. Magnitude images obtained with the SSFP pulse sequence were used to find the PRF shift, which is proportional to temperature change. Spatiotemporal temperature maps were successfully reconstructed with this technique in gel phantom experiments and a rabbit model. The results show that the balanced-SSFP-based method is a promising new technique for monitoring temperature.
- MR thermometry
- Proton resonance frequency shift
- Thermal mapping
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging