Spectrum of findings in orchiectomy specimens of persons undergoing gender confirmation surgery

Andres Matoso, Binny Khandakar, Songyang Yuan, Tony Wu, Li J. Wang, Kara A. Lombardo, Shamlal Mangray, Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Evgeny Yakirevich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Gender confirmation surgery is increasingly common in persons with gender dysphoria. We describe changes seen in gonads from individuals seeking male-to-female physical adaptation. We studied 99 orchiectomies from 50 persons. The average age was 33 years (range, 21-63 years). Eighty-six (86.8%) of 99 testes were normal in size with an average size of 3.87 cm (range, 3.0-5.5 cm). Thirteen (13.1%) of 99 testes were hypotrophic and measured up to 2.5 cm. Seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter compared with controls (0.137 mm versus 0.237 mm; P <.001) and showed peritubular fibrosis in 41 (82%) of 50 persons. In 40 (80%) of 50 persons, there was maturation arrest at the spermatogonia level. In 10 (20%) of 50 persons, the seminiferous tubules showed focal spermatids/spermatozoa up to 7 per 10 tubules mixed with partial maturation arrest at primary spermatocytes. Twenty-six (26%) of 99 testes showed seminiferous tubules with rare cells with large nuclei (3× size of Sertoli cells nuclei) and degenerative chromatin (cytomegaly). Leydig cells were absent in 50 (50%), markedly reduced in 30 (30%), and similar to controls (mean, 33/high-power field) in 20 (20%). A subset (20/99; 20%) of testes had epithelial hyperplasia of the proximal epididymis with stratification and micropapillae. There was no germ cell tumor, sex cord stromal tumors, or germ cell neoplasia in situ. In summary, the histologic changes include (1) decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and expansion of the interstitium, (2) marked hypoplasia of germ cells, (3) rare cytomegaly, (4) hypoplasia or absence of Leydig cells, and (5) epididymal hyperplasia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-99
Number of pages9
JournalHuman pathology
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • Cytomegaly
  • Leydig cells
  • Orchiectomy
  • Testes histopathology
  • Transgender
  • Transsexual

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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