Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, W. Pan, R. Dietze, R. L. Peres, S. A. Vinhas, F. K. Ribeiro, M. Palaci, R. R. Rodrigues, E. Zandonade, J. E. Golub

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48 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. DESIGN: In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin's local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence. RESULTS: A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Moran's I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100 000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100 000. TB incidence and socio-economic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1395-1402
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2010


  • Epidemiologic surveillance
  • Prevention control
  • Spatial distribution
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases


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