Spatial patterns and determinants of malaria infection during pregnancy in Zambia

Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Karen E. Kirk, Emmanuel Chanda, Maha A. Elbadry, Jailos Lubinda, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Victor M. Mukonka, Wenyi Zhang, Gabriel Mushinge, Mercy Mwanza-Ingwe, Ubydul Haque

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a major concern in Zambia. Here we aim to determine the burden and risk factors of MiP. Methods: Monthly reported district-level malaria cases among pregnant women (count data) from January 2009 to December 2014 were obtained from the Zambian District Health Information System. Negative binomial regression model was used to investigate the associations between vector control tools, coverage of health care facilities, transportation networks and population density. Data on MiP treatment were obtained from the 2012 Zambian Malaria Indicator Survey. Yearly clusters of MiP were investigated using spatial statistics in ArcGIS v 10.1. Results: The results indicated thatMiP decreased in Zambia between 2010 and 2013. MiPwas observed throughout the year, but showed a strong seasonal pattern. Persistent hotspots of MiP were reported in the southeast and northeast regions of Zambia, with districts that had better access to rail road and presence of water bodies associated with decreased prevalence of MiP. Better indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets coverage was demonstrated to be protective against MiP. Conclusions: Mapping the distribution of MiP to track the future requirements for scaling up essential diseaseprevention efforts in stable hotspots can help the Zambian National Malaria Control Center to further develop strategies to reduce malaria prevalence in this vulnerable sub-population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)514-521
Number of pages8
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 30 2015


  • Diagnosis
  • IPTp
  • Malaria
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk factors
  • Zambia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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