Simulation and augmented reality in endovascular neurosurgery: Lessons from aviation

Alim P. Mitha, Mohammed A. Almekhlafi, Major Jameel J. Janjua, Felipe C. Albuquerque, Cameron G. McDougall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Endovascular neurosurgery is a discipline strongly dependent on imaging. Therefore, technology that improves how much useful information we can garner from a single image has the potential to dramatically assist decision making during endovascular procedures. Furthermore, education in an image-enhanced environment, especially with the incorporation of simulation, can improve the safety of the procedures and give interventionalists and trainees the opportunity to study or perform simulated procedures before the intervention, much like what is practiced in the field of aviation. Here, we examine the use of simulators in the training of fighter pilots and discuss how similar benefits can compensate for current deficiencies in endovascular training. We describe the types of simulation used for endovascular procedures, including virtual reality, and discuss the relevant data on its utility in training. Finally, the benefit of augmented reality during endovascular procedures is discussed, along with future computerized image enhancement techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A107-A114
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Augmented reality
  • Endovascular neurosurgery
  • Simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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