Sex-Specific Plaque Signature: Uniqueness of Atherosclerosis in Women

Anum Minhas, Ilton Cubero Salazar, Brigitte Kazzi, Allison G. Hays, Andrew D. Choi, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Erin D. Michos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both men and women, although there are notable differences in presentation between men and women. Atherosclerosis remains the predominant driver of coronary heart disease in both sexes; however, sex differences in atherosclerosis should be investigated further to understand clinical manifestations between men and women. Recent Findings: There are sex differences in the prevalence, progression, and prognostic impact of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, developing evidence demonstrates unique differences in atherosclerotic plaque characteristics between men and women on both noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities. Coronary microvascular dysfunction may be present even if no obstructive lesions are found. Most importantly, non-obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with a heightened risk of future adverse cardiovascular events and should not be ignored. Summary: The distinct plaque signature in women should be recognized, and optimal preventive strategies should be performed for both sexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number84
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Coronary disease
  • Plaque
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Sex-Specific Plaque Signature: Uniqueness of Atherosclerosis in Women'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this