Sex-related differences in chronic myeloid neoplasms: From the clinical observation to the underlying biology

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Chronic myeloid neoplasms are clonal diseases with variable clinical course and outcomes and despite the introduction of novel therapies, patients with high-risk disease continue to have overall poor outcomes. Different groups have highlighted that men have overall worse survival and higher incidence of transformation to acute leukemia compared to women across neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), MDS/MPN overlap neoplasms, and CML. More recent studies evaluating the genomic profile of patients with these neoplasms demonstrated a male predominance for mutations in high-risk genes including ASXL1, U2AF1, SRSF2 and ZRSR2. The understanding of the underlying biology is limited but a number of hypotheses have been developed and are currently being investigated. This review summarizes the current knowledge about sex-related differences in the clinical outcomes and genomic profile of patients with chronic myeloid neoplasms and discusses the hypothesized biologic mechanisms as an attempt to explain these observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2595
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021


  • MDS
  • MPN
  • Myeloid neoplasms
  • Sex-related differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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