Sex differences in HIV effects on visual memory among substance-dependent individuals

Michael K. Keutmann, Raul Gonzalez, Pauline M. Maki, Leah H. Rubin, Jasmin Vassileva, Eileen M. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


HIV’s effects on episodic memory have not been compared systematically between male and female substance-dependent individuals. We administered the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised (BVMT–R) to 280 substance-dependent HIV+ and HIV– men and women. Groups were comparable on demographic, substance use, and comorbid characteristics. There were no significant main effects of sex or HIV serostatus on BVMT–R performance, but HIV+ women performed significantly more poorly on delayed recall. This effect was most prominent among cocaine-dependent HIV+ women. Our findings are consistent with recent speculation that memory impairment may be more common among HIV+ women, particularly those with a history of cocaine dependence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-586
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 3 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cocaine
  • HIV
  • Hippocampus
  • Memory
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Sex differences
  • Substance use disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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