Sex-based Differences in Hearing Loss: Perspectives from Non-clinical Research to Clinical Outcomess

Dillan F. Villavisanis, Elisa R. Berson, Amanda M. Lauer, Maura K. Cosetti, Katrina M. Schrode

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction:It is estimated over 466 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss, and untreated hearing loss is associated with poorer health outcomes. The influence of sex as a biological variable on hearing loss is not well understood, especially for differences in underlying mechanisms which are typically elucidated through non-clinical research. Although the inclusion of sex as a biological variable in clinical studies has been required since 1993, sex reporting has only been recently mandated in National Institutes of Health funded non-clinical studies.Objective:This article reviews the literature on recent non-clinical and clinical research concerning sex-based differences in hearing loss primarily since 1993, and discusses implications for knowledge gaps in the translation from non-clinical to clinical realms.Conclusions:The disparity between sex-based requirements for non-clinical versus clinical research may inhibit a comprehensive understanding of sex-based mechanistic differences. Such disparities may play a role in understanding and explaining clinically significant sex differences and are likely necessary for developing robust clinical treatment options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-298
Number of pages9
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • Age related hearing loss
  • Basic science research
  • Clinical research
  • Hearing loss
  • Noise induced hearing loss
  • Non-clinical research
  • Otolaryngology
  • Sex bias
  • Sex differences
  • Translational research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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