Serum Levels of 1,5-Anhydroglucitol and Risk of Incident End-Stage Renal Disease

Casey M. Rebholz, Morgan E. Grams, Yuan Chen, Alden L. Gross, Yingying Sang, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Glycemic excursions, independent of average glucose, have been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. It is unknown whether low levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are associated with advanced stages of kidney disease independent of kidney function and glycemia. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 13,277 from 4 US communities), we used structural equation modeling to estimate the association between serum 1,5-AG levels and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from baseline (1990-1992) through 2013 with adjustment for demographics, risk factors, a latent variable for glycemia (diabetes status, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fructosamine, glycated albumin), and a latent variable for kidney function (creatinine, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin). After adjusting for demographics, risk factors, and the latent variable for kidney function, the linear spline terms representing 1,5-AG levels <6.0 μg/mL (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 0.88) and 6.0-9.9 μg/mL (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.92) were significantly associated with ESRD. After additionally adjusting for the latent variable for glycemia, low 1,5-AG levels (<6.0 μg/mL) were no longer significantly associated with ESRD (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.05). In conclusion, low 1,5-AG levels are associated with higher risk of incident ESRD independent of baseline kidney function but not independent of glycemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)952-960
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 15 2017


  • 1,5-Anhydroglucitol
  • Biomarkers
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • End-stage renal disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Hyperglycemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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