Seroconversion and Kinetics of Vibriocidal Antibodies during the First 90 Days of Re-Vaccination with Oral Cholera Vaccine in an Endemic Population

Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Bernard Phiri, Harriet Ng’ombe, Mutinta Muchimba, Kalo Musukuma-Chifulo, Suwilanji Silwamba, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Chaluma Luchen, Fraser Liswaniso, Kennedy Chibesa, Cynthia Mubanga, Kapambwe Mwape, Michelo Simuyandi, Adam F. Cunningham, David Sack, Samuel Bosomprah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Despite the successful introduction of oral cholera vaccines, Zambia continues to experience multiple, sporadic, and protracted cholera outbreaks in various parts of the country. While vaccines have been useful in staying the cholera outbreaks, the ideal window for re-vaccinating individuals resident in cholera hotspot areas remains unclear. Using a prospective cohort study design, 225 individuals were enrolled and re-vaccinated with two doses of Shanchol™, regardless of previous vaccination, and followed-up for 90 days. Bloods were collected at baseline before re-vaccination, at day 14 prior to second dosing, and subsequently on days 28, 60, and 90. Vibriocidal assay was performed on samples collected at all five time points. Our results showed that anti-LPS and vibriocidal antibody titers increased at day 14 after re-vaccination and decreased gradually at 28, 60, and 90 days across all the groups. Seroconversion rates were generally comparable in all treatment arms. We therefore conclude that vibriocidal antibody titers generated in response to re-vaccination still wane quickly, irrespective of previous vaccination status. However, despite the observed decline, the levels of vibriocidal antibodies remained elevated over baseline values across all groups, an important aspect for Zambia where there is no empirical evidence as to the ideal time for re-vaccination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number390
JournalVaccines
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Keywords

  • cholera priority areas
  • HIV
  • immunogenicity
  • Shanchol vaccine
  • vibrio cholerae
  • waning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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