Purpose To report the presentation and characteristics of strabismus in children with prenatal methadone exposure. Methods The medical records of children with prenatal methadone exposure were retrospectively reviewed. Those who were evaluated by pediatric ophthalmology were included. Information on the timing and types of prenatal exposure by trimester of pregnancy was then collected from the patients' mothers' charts. The children's perinatal histories and ophthalmologic findings were collected from their pediatric clinic charts and ophthalmology clinic charts, respectively. Results A total of 210 children with prenatal methadone exposure were identified, of whom 32 (15.2%) underwent eye examinations and 21 (10%) had strabismus. Five patients had esodeviations, with a mean age of onset of 11.6 months; 16 had exodeviations, with a mean age of onset of 6.8 months. Three patients with strabismus were born prematurely, and 2 had intracranial disease. Two patients underwent strabismus surgery. Conclusions The incidence of strabismus in patients with prenatal methadone exposure was higher than in the general population (10% vs 3%-4%). Intermittent exotropia was the most common type of strabismus and presented earlier than in the general population, with no association with other systemic disease. Prenatal exposure to methadone was likely confounded by exposure to other substances, environmental factors, and genetics. Poor compliance with follow-up reduced the power of the study.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of AAPOS|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2017|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health