Semi-parametric maximum likelihood method for interaction in case-mother control-mother designs: Package SPmlficmcm

Molière Nguile-Makao, Alexandre Bureau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The analysis of interaction effects involving genetic variants and environmental exposures on the risk of adverse obstetric and early-life outcomes is generally performed using standard logistic regression in the case-mother and control-mother design. However such an analysis is inefficient because it does not take into account the natural family-based constraints present in the parent-child relationship. Recently, a new approach based on semi-parametric maximum likelihood estimation was proposed. The advantage of this approach is that it takes into account the parental relationship between the mother and her child in estimation. But a package implementing this method has not been widely available. In this paper, we present SPmlficmcm, an R package implementing this new method and we propose an extension of the method to handle missing offspring genotype data by maximum likelihood estimation. Our choice to treat missing data of the offspring genotype was motivated by the fact that in genetic association studies where the genetic data of mother and child are available, there are usually more missing data on the genotype of the offspring than that of the mother. The package builds a non-linear system from the data and solves and computes the estimates from the gradient and the Hessian matrix of the log profile semi-parametric likelihood function. Finally, we analyze a simulated dataset to show the usefulness of the package.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
StatePublished - Dec 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Early-life outcome
  • Genetic variants
  • Logistic model
  • Missing genotype data
  • Motherchild pairs
  • R package

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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