Self-reported peripheral arterial disease predicts future vascular events in a community-based cohort

Maya J. Salameh, Tatjana Rundek, Bernadette Boden-Albala, Zhezhen Jin, Elizabeth V. Ratchford, Marco R. Di Tullio, Shunichi Homma, Ralph L. Sacco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is highly prevalent and strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The ankle-brachial index used to screen for PAD is not routinely performed in primary care settings. OBJECTIVE: To determine if self-reported PAD is an independent predictor of combined vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death). DESIGN: Ongoing population-based prospective cohort (the Northern Manhattan Study). Subjects enrolled between July 1993 and June 2001 with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years. PATIENTS: Subjects (n=2,977), aged 40 years or older and free of prior stroke or myocardial infarction, were classified as having self-reported PAD if they answered affirmatively to one of two questions regarding exercise-induced leg pain or a prior diagnosis of PAD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Combined vascular outcome defined as incident myocardial infarction, incident ischemic stroke, or vascular death. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 68.9±10.4 years; 64% were women; 54% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 21% Caucasian; 15% reported having PAD. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, self-reported PAD was significantly predictive of combined events (n=484) in the univariate model (HR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2-1.9) and after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0-1.7). CONCLUSION: Self-reported PAD is an independent risk factor for future vascular events in this predominantly non-white cohort. The addition of two simple PAD questions to the routine medical history in general medicine settings could identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further vascular evaluation and risk factor modification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1423-1428
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2008


  • Claudication
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Vascular events

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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