Self-referral in point-of-service health plans

Christopher B. Forrest, Jonathan P. Weiner, Jinnet Fowles, Christine Vogeli, Kevin D. Frick, Klaus W. Lemke, Barbara Starfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Context: Most health maintenance organizations offer products with loosened restrictions on patients' access to specialty care. One such product is the point-of-service (POS) plan, which combines "gatekeeping" arrangements with the ability to self-refer at increased out-of-pocket costs. Few data are available from formal evaluations of this new type of plan. Objectives: To comprehensively describe the self-referral process in POS plans by quantifying rates of self-referral, identifying patients most likely to self-refer, characterizing patients' reasons for self-referral, and assessing satisfaction with specialty care. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis using administrative databases composed of members aged 0 to 64 years who were enrolled in 3 POS health plans in the Midwest (n=265843), Northeast (n=80292), and mid-Atlantic (n=39888) regions for 6 to 12 months in 1996, and a 1997 telephone survey of specialty care users (n=606) in the midwestern plan. Main Outcome Measures: Self-referred service use and charges, reasons for self-referral, and satisfaction with specialty care. Results: Overall, 8.8% of enrollees in the midwestern POS plan, 16.7% in the northeastern plan, and 17.3% in the mid-Atlantic plan self-referred for at least 1 physician or nonphysician clinician visit. The proportions of enrollees self-referring to generalists (4.7%-8.5%) were slightly higher than the proportions self-referring to specialists (3.7%-7.2%) across all 3 plans. Nine percent to 16% of total charges were due to self-referral. The chances of self-referral to a specialist were increased for patients with chronic and orthopedic conditions, higher cost sharing for physician-approved services, and less continuity with their regular physician. Patients who self-referred to specialists preferred to access specialty care directly (38%), reported relationship problems with their regular physicians (28%), had an ongoing relationship with a specialist (23%), were confused about insurance rules (8%), and did not have a regular physician (3%). Compared with those referred to specialists by a physician, patients who self-referred were more satisfied with the specialty care they received. Conclusions: Having the option to self-refer is enough for most POS plan enrollees; 93% to 96% of enrollees did not exercise their POS option to obtain specialty care via self-referral during a 1-year interval. The potential downside of uncoordinated, self-referred service use in POS health plans is limited and counterbalanced by higher patient satisfaction with specialist services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2223-2231
Number of pages9
Issue number17
StatePublished - May 2 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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